Annotated Preliminary Bibliography
Foundation Inc., 3 October 2007
again this site helps me to understand the history of The Wizard of Oz, in a somewhat more in depth fashion than the previous
website. It follows the story’s progression from 1900 to present day highlighting a very complex history and it was
helpful to view photographs and artwork that has been produced throughout the years since the story’s release.
Cleave. The Weirdness of the Wonder of Oz. 2002. The Counter Agency. 28 September
explores several theories about The Wizard of Oz, some of which do not concern religion or religious aspects; however the
article does suggest, like the two previous websites that The Wizard of Oz is a story which encourages the decline of mankind
depending on a higher power to aid them in life and in turn learning that we can be our own heroes. Another interesting argument
in this article is that the Emerald City
represents power, money and greed and as it is the nucleus of Oz L. Frank Baum intended it to symbolize the rise of secular
society with personal gain as predominant rather than morality and faith in a higher power.
Dirks, Tim. The Wizard
of Oz (1939). 2007. 1 October 2007
is important because it gives a cohesive history of the Story from novel in 1900 and onto major movie success in 1939. It
is necessary for me to know the information given on this site because to evaluate the many theories applied to The Wizard
of Oz it is primarily necessary to know the story’s history so that I can cultivate my own opinions on just what this
famous story was really written to represent.
Gardner, Todd. The Wizard of Oz: The Yellow Brick Road
as Spiritual Journey. 2007. 1
provides great information for my webpage project about the role of religion in the Wizard of Oz. Author Todd Gardner stresses
that the text and film do not specifically hold symbols that represent any one religion but rather that spirituality in general
is expressed in many ways within the consistently popular story. Gardner argues
that the famous yellow Brick Road which Dorothy and her Friends travel
on is the most important symbol as it highlights the fact that Dorothy’s story is actual one of spiritual journeying,
discovery and enlightenment.
Klabunde, Robert. Reflections:
Atheism in the Wizard of Oz. 3 October 2007.
clear in the title, this website also deals with the idea of Atheism within The Wizard of Oz. I am planning on making this
theory a major point of discussion in my project so it is helpful to have different sources on this same topic. Klabunde writes
that the classic story is full of instances that represent a loss of faith in God and a general doubt in religion itself,
particularly Christianity. Toto, Dorothy’s beloved pet and confidante is a major focal point in Klabunde’s argument
for atheism in the story. He writes that many times Toto is in grave danger and Dorothy pleads to the religious figures in
her life, her aunt and uncle for example, to help him and they cannot. She increasingly realizes that it is only her that
can help him, once again reiterating the atheist idea that no higher being is helping us in life.
Lackey, Mark. The Gospel
According to Oz. 2007. 1 October 2007
will be very helpful because another major section of my project will be to explore The Wizard of Story as symbolic of Christian
thinking and Ideals. Author Mark Lackey suggests that as we all have different world views we may all approach the possible
meanings in this timeless story from extremely different perspectives. Lackey is a Christian and sees the story as one written
according to the ideals of Christianity. This view will be great to contrast the theories of atheism and even Satanism suggested
by other writers in regards to what the story is attempting to portray.
McCormick, Ryuei Micheal.
The Wizard of Oz as a Buddhist Parable. 1996. 10 October
am very interested in exploring Asian religious theories within The Wizard of Oz and this website provides, through a very
straight forward structure, how this story reflects some of aspects of Buddhist parables. One of the author’s five points
to support this theory is that the yellow Brick Road mirrors the path
to enlightenment which is completed after reaching Nirvana in Buddhist theory, just as Dorothy will supposedly be enlightened
by the Wizard when she reaches The Emerald City.
St. John, Thomas. Indian-Hating
in “The Wizard of Oz” 2004. 1 October 2007
I am not
sure how helpful this website will be for my project because it appears to deal more with the author’s opinion that
L. Frank Baum was a racist than anything else; however, author Thomas St. John includes in his racist accusations against
Baum that certain symbols, such as the poison poppies, attack aspects of Indian spirituality who believed in substances such
as opium to clear the mind and alleviate pain. I am doubtful I will get much use out of this particular website, but I do
want to explore it further which is why I am including it among my other definite sources.
Teague, Charles. Secrets
and Conspiracies: The Wizard of Oz and Esoteric Symbols.
1 October 2007 <http://farshores.org/ct02.html>.
article was extremely interesting to me, as it argues that the Story of Dorothy and her travels to Oz as reflective of the
practices of Occultism. It was not until reading this article that I decided to make another major section of my project occultism
in the Wizard of Oz. Charles Teague provides in depth support for his theory, one example being that he believes L. Frank
Baum was heavily involved in occultism and that several aspects of the movie mirror cult rituals. For example, the significance
of the yellow brick road is in line with the significance attributed to Gold in the IIIuminati cult, in that it is considered
to be divine and full of wisdom.
Turton, Micheal. Should
the Wizard of Oz be Considered an Atheist Movie? 2004. 1
This Website presents a very interesting perception
of The Wizard of Oz and it is helpful to be because it is a theory that I wish to explore for my project. Author Micheal Turton
devotes his article to proving through many examples that L. Frank Baum, the writer of the novel The Wizard of Oz from which
the MGM movie mega hit was inspired, that Atheism is reflected strongly within the story. One of his main examples in support
of this is that, The Wizard, the God-like figure which prompts Dorothy’s quest down the yellow Brick road, ends up being
a phony. She learns that she has the power within herself to go back to Kansas
and does not need to rely on any type of divine being to get her there. According to Turton, this is in line with atheist
thinkers who believe there are no divine beings, good or evil, and thus we have the power within ourselves to shape our lives.
Bulkeley, Kelly. Visions
of the Night: Dreams, Religion and Psychology. New York:
University of New York Press, 1999.
deals with the relationship between dreams and religion. One Chapter is devoted how dreams and religion connect in The Wizard
of Oz. In all honesty, this book is difficult to understand, thus at this initial stage of research it is hard to sum up exactly
what the author is trying to convey; however, a significant part of The Wizard of Oz deals with Dorothy being in a dream world
so I want to concentrate more on this book during my continuing research to understand what religion may have to do with the
significance of dreams in The Wizard of Oz.
Lasine, Stuart. Knowing
Kings: Knowledge, Power and Narcissism in the Hebrew Bible.
The Society of Biblical Literature, 2001.
title it would not seem that this book would have anything to do with The Wizard of Oz and I actually saw the title and passed
it over several times during my initial source gathering. To my surprise, this book dedicates a whole section to comparing
how King Solomon from the Bible and the Wizard in The Wizard of Oz are similar. According to Lasine the major similarity between
the two and that they both used invisibility to convey power and control. This is true considering that in the Wizard of Oz,
the Wizard hides behind smoke and mirrors, so to speak to hide the fact that he is just a normal person. And, this book points
out that King Solomon wouldn’t let common people see him in an attempt to instill in them that he was an all powerful
king to be feared. I am not sure how I will incorporate this into my project, but I am certain that I do want to use it.
Nathanson, Paul. Over
The Rainbow: The Wizard of Oz as a Secular Myth of America.
York: State University
of New York Press, 1991.
extensively examines the relationship between secular myth and religion through focusing on the Pop culture phenomena of The
Wizard of Oz. Although the book spans nearly 500 pages, it is made clear that the author is attempting to illustrate through
countless textual and film selection passages that this story should be viewed as one that is neither fully religious nor
fully secular. The main point being that for secular and religious communities to be complete, one must include the other.
As for relevancy to my project, there are certain passages that will support my theories while much of the material will not
Scott. “The Wizard of Oz and Other Mythic Rites of Passage.” Image and
Religious Visions in American Film Classics. John R. May. New York:
Paulist Press, 1992.
concentrates on how religion is expressed through visual aspects within American films. The most significant religious vision
within The Wizard of Oz according to the author is the yellow brick road representing one’s spiritual quest, a concept
explored in some of the above noted sources above. However, what is interesting about this article is that it points out how
many different religions have stories and parables of major spiritual quests rather than confining the concept only to Christianity.
Many other visual symbols are examined as well.
Hansen, Linda. “Experience
the World as Home: Reflections of Dorothy’s Quest in the
of Oz” Soundings 67.1 (1984): 91-102.
like many other of my sources explores religion in The Wizard of Oz from a Christian viewpoint. It explores whether or not
the world should be considered home, in line with the Christain belief that the world is not our true home. By focusing on
Dorothy’s quest in “The Wizard of Oz” and her strong desire to get back home, the author attempts to illustrate
the world as home metaphor reveals a lot about how understand and find meaning in life. This article will be useful to me
for my project because the Christain world view in “The Wizard of Oz” is one of my major points of discussion.
G. “The Metaphysical Wizard of Oz” Journal of Religion and Psychical
14.1 (1991): 1-10.
Saposnik, Irving. “Jolson,
Judy and the Jewish Memory” Judaism 50.4 (2001): 410-425
This article is great because it allows me to
expand further on what religions stake theoretical claims in The Wizard of Oz. This particular article examines the major
songs of The Wizard of Oz movie as key indicators of the Jewish presence in the story as presented in the movie of 1939.
2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc., 3 October 2007
2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc., 3 November 2007.
Gardner, Todd. The
Wizard of Oz: The Yellow Brick Road as Spiritual Journey.
October 2007. <http://www.turnmeondeadman.net/OZ/SpiritualJourney.php
Klabunde, Robert. Reflections: Atheism in the Wizard
of Oz. 3 October 2007.
Lackey, Mark. The Gospel According to Oz. 2007.
1 October 2007
Lasine, Stuart. Knowing Kings: Knowledge, Power and
Narcissism in the Hebrew Bible.
The Society of Biblical Literature, 2001.
McCormick, Ryuei Michael. The Wizard of Oz as a Buddhist
Parable. 1996. 10 October
2007 < http://nichirenscoffeehouse.net/Ryuei/Oz.html>.
The UU Troubadours. The Theology of the Wizard of Oz.
12 November 2007.
Turton, Michael. Should the Wizard of Oz be Considered
an Atheist Movie? 2004. 1